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After choosing the driver, all the components for the system are calculated along with the schematic and operating values such as duty cycle, currents and power dissipation. Graphical charts are utilized to visualize the compromises between footprint, efficiency and price. The lower right of the plot shows the highest efficacy, how to scan a pdf document into word lowest footprint solutions.

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This is typically specified using luminous flux, in units of lumens, which is a measure of visible light from a given source. The third scenario is a balance between small size, low cost and high efficacy.

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Electrical simulation is available for analyzing transient behavior. The heat sink areas are calculated based on typical extruded aluminum profiles but other solutions, including high thermal conductivity board material, may be used. But the tradeoff is high temperature which increases with increasing current for a fixed heat sink size Fig.

This drop in efficacy may cause the loss of a governmental efficiency standard approval and certainly make the product less appealing from an energy conservation standpoint. Thus, heat sinking is necessary. This may result in higher cost and larger footprint.

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Lines and paragraphs break automatically. So it is important to monitor the marketplace on a regular basis to keep up with the latest releases. Another scenario, shown in Fig.

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Power Electronics brought to you by. The chart shows three separate drivers being used, but they could also be combined to use one driver with one current sense resistor to reduce the cost, but at the risk of uneven current sharing. And that means heat sinks and temperature control are a must. It's not as simple as just raising the current.

This is the simplest topology to implement and it carries the advantages of high efficiency and low input current requirement. The most direct way is to increase the current, but that in turn increases temperature, which can degrade the light output, decrease efficiency and reduce lifetime. The second case is the lowest cost scenario. The first example is the smallest footprint case.

Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. The circle size is proportional to the cost.

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We go to the fourth example to get higher efficacy and lower temperature. Download the story in pdf format here. High efficacy and long lifetime are achieved only by sacrificing cost and area.

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The scenarios are shown in table form in Fig. This can be solved by using a driver with multiple outputs and current sense resistors, or by using multiple single output drivers. The last scenario targets the highest efficacy. Also, there is no single best solution to the problem.

In contrast to the luminous flux, the luminous efficacy goes down with increasing current Fig. More information about text formats.

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